欢迎访问南京标杆科技有限公司!
025-83692298
  • 一般光学问题

    How do I clean my optics?如何清理我的光学吗?

    In general, if it's not dirty, don't clean it.在一般情况下,如果它不脏,不干净。 Handling optics increases their chances of getting dirty or damaged, so you should clean optics only when necessary.处理光学会增加弄脏或损坏的机会,所以你应该只在必要时清洁光学。 You should handle optics in a clean, low-dust environment while wearing powder-free acetone-impenetrable gloves or finger cots.你应该处理光学在一个干净,低粉尘的环境中,而穿着粉****坚不可摧的手套或指套。 Since oil and debris from your hands or from used lens tissue can stain or damage optical coatings, you should not touch any transmissive or reflective surface of your optic and never reuse a lens tissue.由于油污和杂物从你的手中,或从使用镜头纸弄脏或损坏的光学镀膜,你不应该触摸你的视觉透射或反射的表面,永不再用镜头纸。 Remember that lens tissues are inexpensive compared to the price of an optic.请记住,镜头纸的光纤的价格相比,价格便宜。 Please refer to Care and Cleaning of Optics for complete optics cleaning instructions.请参阅保养和清洁光学完整的光学清洁说明。

    Mirror Questions镜子的问题

    How do I choose the right mirror for my application?我该如何选择合适的镜子,我的应用程序?

    To make sure you get the right mirror for your application, we offer several different types of mirrors.为了确保你得到正确的镜为您的应用程序,我们提供了几种不同类型的镜子。 The durability and high reflectivity of our broadband dielectric mirrors (Models 51X0, 51X1, and 51X2) make them ideal for general laboratory use.我们的宽频介电镜(型号51X0,51X1,51X2)的耐用性和高反射率一般实验室使用的理想选择。 Models 51X4 and 5105 are designed especially for high-power Nd:YAG applications at 1064 nm and 532 nm.模型51X4和5105顷的,尤其是对高功率Nd:YAG 1064 nm和532 nm的应用。 Our general-purpose metal mirrors (Models 51X3 and 51X8) have minimal dispersion and are great for ultrashort-pulse applications.我们一般用途的金属反射镜(51X3和51X8型)具有最小的色散和伟大的超短脉冲应用。 To ensure quick delivery, all of our mirrors are shipped from stock.为了保证快速交货,我们的镜子都运到股票。

    Can I use New Focus mirrors in transmissive applications?我可以使用新焦点镜中传输的应用程序吗?

    No, it is not possible to use our mirrors in transmissive applications because we use Pyrex substrates.不,这是不可能使用的反射镜的透射的应用程序,因为我们使用Pyrex基板。 Pyrex has inhomogeneities in its refractive index, which make it a poor material for optical transmission applications.高硼硅在其折射率的不均匀性,使一个贫穷的材料为光传输应用。 This is the reason why the back surfaces of the mirrors are sandblasted.这是一个反射镜的后表面进行喷砂处理的原因。

    Why does New Focus use Pyrex as the substrate?为什么新焦点使用高硼硅为基板吗?

    We chose Pyrex for our substrates because it offers a lower thermal expansion coefficient than BK7 optical glass and polishes more easily than fused quartz.我们选择的Pyrex为我们的底物,因为它提供了一个低的热膨胀系数比BK7的光学玻璃和抛光更容易比熔凝石英。 Because Pyrex has inhomogeneities in its refractive index, these mirrors are not suited for transmissive applications.由于的Pyrex有其折射率的不均匀性,没有适合于透射的应用程序,这些反射镜。 We fine-grind the backside substrates to prevent inadvertent transmissions.我们精细研磨的背面基板,以防止意外的传输。 All the edges are chamfered to avoid chipping during use.所有的边缘被倒角,以避免在使用过程中碎裂。

    What's the surface quality of the mirrors?反射镜的表面质量是什么?

    47B3 Typical Flatness: Our 1 inch mirrors are flat to less than a tenth of a wave. 典型的平整度:1英寸的镜子是平的不到十分之一的波。 In this graph, the red areas are +0.0143 waves and the purple areas are -0.0221 waves at l=633 nm 在该曲线图中,红色区域是0.0143波和紫色区域是-0.0221在l = 633nm的波

    The surface quality of an optic is described by its surface figure and irregularity.某个光学元件的表面质量,所描述的表面图和不规则。 Surface figure is defined as peak-to-valley deviation from flatness, including any curvature (also known as power) present.表面图被定义为峰 - 谷平面度偏差,包括任何曲率(也称为电源)本。 Surface irregularity is represented by the peak-to-valley deviations when power is subtracted.表面的凹凸来表示功率中减去时,由峰 - 谷偏差。 Our front-surface figure is guaranteed flat to less than l/10 at 633 nm over a 1" diameter. Our 2" mirrors have a figure of l/4 over the full 2" diameter.我们的前表面数字小于L/10平保证在633 nm在一个直径为1“2”镜子有一个数字在整个2“直径的l / 4。

    What does the MIL-M-13508-C mean? MIL-M-13508-C是什么意思?

    This is a durability standard for reflective coatings.这是一个反射涂层的耐久性的标准。 It consists of a series of tests that the coating must withstand.它由一系列的测试,该涂层必须能承受。 Among these tests are:在这些测试中是:

    • Exposure to temperatures from -80 to +160 °F暴露于温度范围从-80到160°F。
    • 50 strokes with a cheesecloth 50招用纱布
    • Coating does not peel away from the substrate when pulled with cellophane tape涂层不被拉用玻璃纸胶带剥离时,从基板
    • Exposure to 90-100% humidity at 120 °F暴露于湿度为90-100%,在120°F的
    • Exposure to salt spray暴露于盐雾

    Do I need to handle metal mirrors differently than dielectric mirrors?我需要处理不同的介质镜金属镜吗?

    Yes, metal coatings are softer and therefore more easily damaged than dielectric coatings.是的,金属涂层柔软,因此更容易受到损伤比介电层。 It's best to clean metal mirrors using the immersion technique described above.这是最好的清洁金属镜使用上述浸渍技术。 For long-term storage, keep your metal mirrors in a dry environment to protect them from tarnishing and oxidizing.对于长期储存,让您的金属镜在干燥的环境,以保护他们免受玷污和氧化。 Unless you need the wide spectral reflectivity and constant phase-shift of our metal mirrors, we recommend our broadband dielectric mirrors.除非你需要在很宽的光谱反射率和恒定的金属镜的相移,我们建议我们的宽带介质镜。

    I need a custom coating.我需要一个定制的涂层。 Can New Focus supply a custom mirror?新的重点提供一个自定义的镜子吗?

    Our mirrors are polished and coated by an outside vendor, and New Focus does not have the capability to perform custom polishing or dielectric coatings.我们的镜子打磨和涂外部供应商,新焦点没有能力执行自定义的抛光或电介质的涂料。

    For applications using ultrashort pulses, which mirror should I use?对于使用超短脉冲的应用程序,我应该使用哪个镜像?

    Dielectric mirror coatings can cause significant dispersive effects for ultrashort pulses.介电镜涂料可能会导致显着的超短脉冲的色散效应。 The dispersion of the material and the interference effects between the layers result in rapid phase variations at specific wavelengths.的分散体的材料和层之间的结果在快速的相位变化,在特定波长的干扰效应。 Since the group delay is related to the slope of the phase variation, these wavelength regions introduce significant group-delay errors that can broaden and distort your pulse.由于群延迟有关的相位变化的斜率,这些波长区域的引入显着的群延时,可以扩大和扭曲你的脉搏的错误。 Therefore, for applications requiring ultrashort pulses, such as those with Ti:Sapphire lasers, we suggest using our silver-coated mirrors, which have minimal phase distortion.因此,对于需要超短脉冲,如那些与Ti:蓝宝石激光器的应用中,我们建议使用我们的银包覆的镜子,其中具有最小的相位失真。

    Plano-Convex & Aspheric Lens Questions平凸非球面镜片的问题

    How do I choose the right lens?我该如何选择合适的镜片?

    99重点ASPH镜头 99准直ASPH镜头

    A good way to estimate the best lens to use in your experiment is to choose the focal length of the lens using this formula:估计在实验中使用的最好的镜头是一个很好的方法来选择焦距的镜头使用这个公式:

    f=[dDp]/4l F = [DDP / 4L

    where f is the lens focal length, d is the beam diameter at the focus, D is the 1/e2 diameter of the collimated beam, and l is the wavelength.其中f是透镜的焦距,d是焦点处的光束直径,D是的1/e2的准直束的直径,和l是波长。 If you are collimating a beam, you also need to make sure the NA of the lens is larger than that of your fiber or diode so that you are capturing all the available light.如果你是准直光束,你还需要确保NA的镜头是大于纤维或二极管,以使您捕捉所有可用的光。 When focusing into a fiber, be sure that the NA of the focused beam is smaller than the NA of the fiber to maximize coupling efficiency.当聚焦成纤维时,确定的聚焦光束的NA小于NA的光纤耦合效率最大化。 This analysis will give you a good estimate, but you may find that you need to try a few lenses to get optimum focusing, which is why the kit can be especially convenient.这种分析将会给你一个很好的估计,但你会发现,你需要尝试几个镜头,以获得最佳的聚焦,这就是为什么该试剂盒可特别方便。

    Why should I use an aspheric lens?我为什么要使用非球面镜片?

    Aspheric lenses are designed to refract light at large angles without introducing any significant spherical aberrations.的目的是在大角度的光线折射,而不会引入任何重大的球面像差的非球面镜片。 Consequently, they can have much shorter focal lengths than comparably sized spherical lenses.因此,他们可以有更短的焦距比同等大小的球面镜片。 Because an aspheric surface minimizes the aberrations experienced by rays traveling through the outer circumference of a lens, these lenses are especially useful for low f-number* applications.由于非球面表面的光线行进通过透镜的外周所经历的像差最小化,这些透镜低f数*应用是特别有用的。 Such applications include diode-laser collimation and coupling light into and out of optical fibers.这样的应用包括二极管激光准直和光耦合到满分根光纤。 One surface of these lenses is aspheric while the other is either plano (Models 5721, 5725, and 5726) or convex (Models 5722, 5723, and 5724).这些透镜的一个表面是非球面的,而其他是平凹(型号5721,5725,和5726)或凸(型号5722,5723,和5724)。 Those with plano second surfaces have the least aberrations while those with convex second surfaces have the lowest f-number.普莱诺的第二表面有至少畸变而凸的第二表面具有最低的f值。

    * f-number (f/#)=focal length/lens diameter~(2 NA)-1. * f数(的f /#)​​=焦距/透镜直径〜(2 NA)-1。

    How well centered are the lenses in their holders?以及中心在其持有的镜头吗?

    The tolerance for the centration of the aspheres (that is, the difference between the mechanical center of the lens and the location of the optical axis) is specified at 3 µm.的对中的非球面透镜(即,机械中心的镜头的光轴的位置之间的差异)的公差为指定在3μm。

    ND Filter Questions ND过滤器的问题

    How do I avoid étalon effects?如何避免标准具效应?

    For best results, align filters at a slight angle to your incident beam.为了达到最佳效果,在一个很小的角度,以您的入射光束对准过滤器。 This will reduce étalon effects.这将减少标准具效应。

    Wave Plate Questions波片的问题

    How does a wave plate work?波片是如何工作的呢?

    Light that is incident upon a wave plate is resolved into two components.入射的波片后的光被分解成两个组件。 One component travels along the "fast" axis of the crystal at a higher phase velocity than the component along the "slow" axis.沿着“快”的晶体在一个更高的阶段速度比“慢”轴组件沿轴的一个组成部分。 The polarization of the output beam depends on the phase difference between the two components produced by that velocity difference.输出光束的偏振依赖于由该速度差产生的两个组件之间的相位差。

    What does a half-wave plate do?一个半波片做什么?

    A half-wave plate produces a relative phase difference of p radians between fast- and slow-axis waves.半波板产生的相对相位差之间的P弧度的快轴和慢轴波。 If the incoming light is polarized at an angle a with respect to the fast axis, the outgoing light will be rotated by 2a about the fast axis.如果入射光是偏振光的快轴相对于在一个角度a,出射光将是有关的快轴2a的转动。 Half-wave plates also flip the handedness of circularly or elliptically polarized light.半波片翻转圆形或椭圆偏振光的左右手。

    How do I change the orientation of linearly polarized light?我该如何改变方向的线偏振光?

    99 bereks线性关系,线性 Half-Wave Plate: Use a half-wave plate to change the orientation of linearly polarized light. 半波片:使用一个半波片改变的方向的线偏振光。 99 bereks线性关系圆形 Quarter-Wave Plate: A quarter-wave plate allows you to convert linearly polarized light to elliptically polarized light. 四分之一波片:一个四分之一波片可以让你转换线偏振光,椭圆偏振光。 For the special case where the incident light is oriented at 45° with respect to either principal axis, the resulting light will be circularly polarized. 对于特殊的情况下,入射光是在45℃相对于任一主轴线取向,所得到的光将成为圆偏振光。

    A half-wave plate will change the orientation of linearly polarized light.的半波片的直线偏振光的方向会改变。 To verify that you have the correct linear polarization direction, orient a polarizer so that it blocks the desired polarization.为了验证是否有正确的线性偏振方向,偏振镜的方向,因此,它可以阻止所需的偏光。 If necessary, adjust the half-wave plate to achieve full extinction.如果有必要,调整半波片,以达到完全灭绝。

    How do I change linear polarization to circular?我该如何改变线性极化,圆吗?

    Determining handedness is difficult if you don't know the orientation of the fast and slow axes of the wave plate.确定的霸道是困难的,如果你不知道波片的快轴和慢轴方向。 With the Model 5540 Berek's wave plate, however, identifying the fast and slow axes is simple.使用型号5540贝雷波板,然而,确定的快,慢轴是简单的。 The wave plate works by tilting a uniaxial piece of material, whose face is perpendicular to the optic axis.波片的工作原理是倾斜的单轴一块材料,其是垂直于光轴的面。 The slow axis is always in the plane of incidence, perpendicular to the tilt-rotation axis.的慢轴是总是在垂直于入射平面的倾斜旋转轴线。 Once the orientation of the fast and slow axes is known, LHC and RHC polarization can be determined by using a polarizer and the compensator as a quarter-wave plate.一旦的快轴和慢轴的方向是已知的,可确定LHC和RHC偏振通过使用作为四分之一波片的偏振器和补偿器。 For LHC, if the slow axis of the quarter-wave plate is along the Y-axis, the output of the wave plate will be linear at -45° to the X-axis and transmitted through a polarizer oriented at 45° to the X-axis.对于LHC,如果四分之一波片的慢轴与沿Y轴,波片的输出将是线性的,在-45℃到X-轴和透过偏振取向为45°的X轴。 RHC will be blocked. RHC将被阻止。 Rotating the wave plate or polarizer by 90° reverses the result.旋转的波片或90°的偏振片,反转的结果。

    What's the difference between a zero-order and a multiple-order wave plate?的零阶,多阶波板之间的区别是什么?

    Wave plates that add a multiple of the desired phase shift (the desired phase shift plus extra 2p shifts) are called multiple-order wave plates.波片,添加的倍数的所述期望相位偏移(所需的相位偏移加上额外的2p的移位)被称为多阶波片。 Zero-order wave plates introduce only the desired phase shift.零级波片只介绍所需的相移。 Since there is significantly less accumulation of phase shift in a zero-order wave plate, they are less sensitive to temperature fluctuations and wavelength changes.由于有显着少的积累在一个零阶波片的相移,它们是对温度波动和波长变化较不敏感。

    What wave plate would you use in ultrashort applications?在超短的应用程序,你会用什么样的波板?

    When you're using wave plates with ultrashort pulses, it's important to use zero-order wave plates because of their wide retardance bandwidths.当你使用超短脉冲波板,重要的是要使用零级波片,因为其广泛的延迟带宽。 For example, a zero-order wave plate provides a half-wave retardance to within 1% over a ±7-nm bandwidth.例如,一个零阶波板提供了一个半波延迟超过±7 nm带宽在1%以内。 A 100-fs pulse centered at 800 nm has a bandwidth of about 9 nm. 100 fs的脉冲为800 nm的带宽约为9 nm。

    Is there an AR coating on the Berek's variable wave plate?有AR涂层贝雷变波板吗?

    No, the Model 5540 variable wave plate uses a single piece of magnesium fluoride without any AR coating.否,型号5540可变波片,使用一个单件的氟化镁没有任何AR涂层。 We do not provide an AR-coating for the magnesium fluoride because this material has a refractive index that is fairly low (about 1.40).我们不提供AR涂层的氟化镁,因为这种材料的折射率,是相当低的(约1.40)。 This corresponds to a reflectivity of about 2.8% per surface, and so, the transmission of the Model 5540 is calculated to be approximately 94.4%.这对应于每面的反射率约2.8%,因此,模型5540发送被计算为约94.4%。

    How can I get a wave plate with no moving parts?我怎样才能获得一个波板没有移动部件吗?

    If you want a variable wave plate with no moving parts, use a Model 4104 amplitude modulator without an exit polarizer.如果你想有一个可变的波板,没有移动部件,使用型号4104不退出偏振器的振幅调制器。 This effectively acts as a voltage-variable wave plate.这有效地作为一个电压可变波片。

    Beamsplitter Questions分光器的问题

    Which side of the beamsplitter cube is the input?哪一方的分光棱镜的输入?

    2002年偏振立方 Orienting our Beamsplitter Cubes 我们的分束镜立方体方向

    The light should enter the beamsplitter through the prism with the dot on it.应该进入光通过棱镜分光器的点就可以了。 This is the prism with the AR coating on it.这是与AR涂层上的棱镜。 Input light should enter this prism to ensure the light reflects off of the coating and not the epoxy.应输入的输入光,以确保该棱镜的光反射的涂层,而不是在环氧树脂。 This is especially important if you are using a high-power laser because high power might damage epoxy.这是特别重要的,如果你使用的是高功率的高功率激光,因为可能会损坏环氧树脂。 The arrow > on the other prism is for the vendor, and tells them where to test the face flatness of the cube.箭头>的其它棱镜的供应商,并告诉他们在哪里测试的立方体的表面平整度